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    科技翻譯例文-沖動式渦輪機

     In an impulse turbine steam is admitted through a nozzle and directed against one or more rows of blades. Prior to passing through this nozzle, the steam is at high pressure but low velocity. The nozzle normally consists of a convergent and divergent section. In the former, the steam suffers a drop in pressure, but its velocity is increased. The function of the divergent section is to reduce to a minimum the tendency of the fluid to turbulence, and thus to ensure that the fluid flow is as smooth possible.


    On emerging from the nozzle at its maximum velocity, the steam impinges on the row of moving blades which project radially from the turbine shaft. In this axial-flow type of turbine, the steam flow is along the axis of rotation of the shaft, and therefore the blades radiate outwords from the shaft. On entering the blades, which are set at a definite angle to the steam flow, the steam is deflected from its original path. In being deflected, it exerts an impulsive force on the blades, which causes them to rotate. While passing over the blades, the steam suffers a slight reduction in velocity through friction. In a simple turbine, it is then passed out into the atmosphere, or to a condenser, where it is condensed and led back to the boiler.

    However, after leaving the blades of the turbine, the steam still possesses a considerable velocity, and this may be utilised in another type of turbine by passing it through a series of two or more turbine wheels. This is known as velocity-compounding. On passing through the first row of moving blades, the steam encounters a row of stationary blades which deflect the steam on to a second row of moving blades, and so on. Each time part of the kinetic energy of the steam is lost through friction, and therefore the velocity of the steam is progressively reduced. In order to compensate for this, the blades in each successive row are made progressively larger in cross-section, and their pitch is increased. In this way, a larger proportion of the kinetic energy of the steam can be utilised than in the simple turbine.

    Another type of turbine in common use is known as the pressure- compounded turbine. It incorporates several rows of blades, but each one is enclosed between diaphragms to form a separate pressure stage. After passing through the first set of blades, the steam is directed through nozzles set in the succeeding diaphragm, and inpinges on the following row of blades.

    參考譯文

    沖動式渦輪機

    在沖動式渦輪機中,蒸汽通過噴咀向一列或多列葉片噴射。蒸汽在經過噴咀之前,壓力大但速度低。噴咀通常由收縮部分和擴張部分構成。氣流流過收縮部分時,壓力下降,但速度提高。擴張部分的作用在于使流體變成湍流的趨勢成小到最低程度,因此,可保證流體的流動盡可能平穩。

    當蒸汽以最髙速度從噴咀里噴出時,便沖擊一列呈輻射狀安裝在潤輪機主軸上的動葉片。 在這種軸流式渦輪機中,蒸汽總是沿主軸的旋轉軸向流動的。因此,葉片由主軸向外呈輻射狀展開,當蒸汽進入同蒸 汽液成一定角度的葉片時,就被迫改變原來的運動方向。在被迫改變方向時,蒸汽對葉片施加沖擊力,使之轉動。蒸汽通過葉片時,由于摩擦的作用其速度稍稍降低。在簡單的渦輪機中,蒸汽被排入大氣,或進入冷凝器冷凝成水后流回鍋爐。

    然而,當蒸汽離開渦輪機的葉片之后,仍然具有相當大的速度;因此,可在另一 種渦輪機中,使蒸汽連續通過兩個或多個渦輪機葉輪繼續加以利用,這就叫速度復合。蒸汽在通過第一列動葉片之后 ,立即碰到一列靜葉片,將蒸汽偏向第二列動葉片,以此類推。蒸汽的動能每次都因摩擦而損失一部分,因此,蒸汽的速度逐漸減小。為了彌補這一缺點,可將隨后各列葉片的剖面依次做得大些,節距也加寬些,這樣,蒸汽動能的利用率較之簡單渦輪機上要髙些。

    另一種通用的渦輪機稱為壓力多級式渦輪機,它裝有幾列葉片,每列葉片之間有隔板分隔,形成一個分離的壓力級。蒸汽流過第一組葉片之后,依次通過裝在下一個隔板里的噴咀沖擊下一列葉片。
     
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